The movement known as Sinn Féin has taken a number of forms since its inception and the first to bear the name, which was established by Arthur Griffith in 1905, had as its basis a political model that came into existence in central Europe 150 years ago on February 18th. This political arrangement, known as the Ausgleich in German and the Kiegyezés in Hungarian, and which translates into English as “Compromise”, saw the establishment of the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary.
Following 150 years of partial Ottoman control, Hungary came under Austrian Habsburg rule in 1699. In the “Year of Revolutions” (1848), the native Magyar majority overthrew Austrian rule but Russia came to Austria’s aid to restore the status quo. Following a long period of Hungarian passive resistance, and with Austria losing wars to France (1859) and Prussia (1866), the dual-monarchy arrangement emerged in 1867 whereby Hungary became independent in internal affairs but shared a common foreign and defence policy with Austria, with Franz Josef accepted as common head of state (but as king of Hungary rather than emperor of Austria).